The prophet like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, did not rise up in Israeli anymore. [Deuteronomy 34:10]
If Moses really existed, then he is probably the most influential figure in history. His words are the basis of faith for half the earth’s population. The great monotheistic religions in the modern world are descended from the sacred laws which, according to legend, he revealed to the ancient Jews. The God of Moses became the only God not only of Judaism, but also of Christianity and Islam.
“Hear, O Israel: Jehovah our God is the only Lord. And to love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might. And those words that I command you on this day must remain in your heart forever. And in this faith you will study your children and speak to them when you are in your home, and when you walk on your way, and when you go to bed and when you get out of it. ”
These are the words of the Hebrew Shema Isroel prayer [Deuteronomy 6: 4-7], which in Judaism is still considered the most important commandment of God. Christians also regard this passage as essential in their faith. According to chapter 12, verses 28 to 30, in the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament, when asked which of God’s commandments is the most important, Jesus replied:
The first commandment of God is: Hear, O Israel: Jehovah our God is the only Lord. And to love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might. This is God’s first commandment.
The echo of these words is found in Adan, the Islamic call to prayer: “God is great. I swear there is no deity but God. ”
No matter how each of these religions, and their many and varied creeds, interprets Scripture, they all believe that there is only one God, and accepting this fact is the most fundamental principle of their faith. According to the Bible, this commandment of God was revealed to Moses on the mountain in Sinai – the mountain of God – about three and a half millennia ago.
There is no historical evidence of the pre-Mosaic era that anyone in the world intended to preach the idea of the existence of only one God – even among the population of ancient Israel. Archaeologists have discovered that the early Semites – the nomadic tribes from which the Jews eventually descended – had numerous gods, as evidenced by the various statues found in the tombs of those distant eras. Even the Bible confirms that before Moses there was actually no Israeli religion. Although there are several episodes in which God communicates directly with several of Moses’ predecessors – such as Abraham and Jacob – there is no evidence that all Israelis accepted God. Even Moses had no clearer idea of God when he first came upon Him. According to the book of Exodus,
Moses fed the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, a priest of the Midianites: and as he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, he came to the mountain of God, Horeb. And an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire in the midst of a blackberry; and Moses looked, and a hundred blackberries burned with fire, not burning. And Moses said to himself, “Let me turn and look at this miracle, why the blackberry does not burn.” And when the Lord saw that Moses had turned out of his way, God called him out of the blackberry, and said, “Moses, Moses.” And he said, “Here I am.” [Exodus 3: 1-4]
According to the Bible, it is from this day and from this place that the Israeli religion began to exist.
Centuries after Moses’ first meeting with the Lord, only the Israelites, also called Jews, obey this first monotheistic religion. This God represented a unique concept. Not only was he the only and universal deity, but he didn’t even have a name. Unlike other gods of antiquity, he was referred to as Yahweh (Yhwh, Yahweh), which later translators of the Bible translated as Jehovah, a word that simply means ‘Lord’. The perception of the same Lord as the only God is a central theme for any contemporary culture in Eastern and Western Europe, the Middle East, the Americas, in many countries in Africa and most countries in Asia. He became the God of the late Roman Empire, the God of Byzantium, the God of the Arabs, the God of the Crusaders, the God of the Conquistadors and the God of the Victorian missionaries.
By about 600 BC. the Israelis lived in isolation on a narrow strip of land where the state of Israel, the West Bank and southern Jordan are today. Called Canaan by the Egyptians and Palestine by the Greeks and Romans, it was at the crossroads of great civilizations in Africa, Asia Minor and the Middle East. According to the Bible, the united kingdom of Israel once stretched there, but over time this territory opened up to the world, leaving only the small autonomous state of the Jews – the kingdom of Judea (Judaea) around the city of Jerusalem. Later, this land was called Judea by the Romans, where the kingdom of Herod was founded, which then became a Roman province governed by Pilate of Pontius – this was the land where Jesus Christ was born and died.
In 597 BC. Judea was invaded by the Babylonians, which made the culture and religion of its inhabitants – the Jews – accessible to the rest of the world. As the unique monotheistic religion of the ancient Jews began to spread, its influence grew steadily. When Alexander of Macedon conquered Palestine in 333 BC, many Greeks who settled in these lands accepted the Jewish God and Judaism continued to flourish. Although the name “Jews” referred only to the inhabitants of Judea, it now applies to anyone who has accepted the Jewish God. But even during the Roman rule in Palestine, even the Jewish monarchical dynasty was actually Greek. In the first century AD Christianity developed from Judaism and became the state religion of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the 4th century.
There are so many different religions, sects and cults worshiping the one God today that it is impossible to describe them all. The Roman Catholic Church is undoubtedly the largest Christian movement, with Catholics worldwide numbering nearly one billion people. Major Protestant movements numbered 300 million, including those under the influence of the Anglican, Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist and Irswiterian churches, as well as another 30 million Baptists. Quakers, also known as the Society of Friends, have around 200,000 people worldwide; around 500,000 members belong to the Unitarian Church worldwide; followers of the Pentecostal Church are estimated at 10 million. In Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church is predominant with more than 130 million believers. In addition, various derivative Christian teachings spread very quickly. There are about three million members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses sect; the Mormons, or the Church of Jesus Christ and the modern saints, number about six million; Seventh-day Adventists unite about 200,000, and Christian Science has an estimated 140,000 followers. Of the non-Christian teachings, 18 million Jews and more than a billion Muslims should be mentioned. And all this began among a small number of people in Palestine who were virtually unknown to the world before 597 BC. There are about three million members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses sect; the Mormons, or the Church of Jesus Christ and the modern saints, number about six million; Seventh-day Adventists unite about 200,000, and Christian Science has an estimated 140,000 followers. Of the non-Christian teachings, 18 million Jews and more than a billion Muslims should be mentioned. And all this began among a small number of people in Palestine who were virtually unknown to the world before 597 BC. There are about three million members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses sect; the Mormons, or the Church of Jesus Christ and the modern saints, number about six million; Seventh-day Adventists unite about 200,000, and Christian Science has an estimated 140,000 followers. Of the non-Christian teachings, 18 million Jews and more than a billion Muslims should be mentioned. And all this began among a small number of people in Palestine who were virtually unknown to the world before 597 BC. Of the non-Christian teachings, 18 million Jews and more than a billion Muslims should be mentioned. And all this began among a small number of people in Palestine who were virtually unknown to the world before 597 BC. Of the non-Christian teachings, 18 million Jews and more than a billion Muslims should be mentioned. And all this began among a small number of people in Palestine who were virtually unknown to the world before 597 BC.
The only story we have about the lives of the ancient Jews during the period up to 597 BC is the Jewish Tanak – what Christians call the Old Testament Bible. Although it covers the history of the Jews for more than a millennium before the Babylonian invasion, the Old Testament was probably not written before 550 BC.
The events of the Old Testament describe everything related to the emergence of the Jewish religion, but they seem unlikely for modern thinking. According to biblical chronology, it all began around 1300 BC. In the beginning was Moses’ conversation with God, presented to him in the form of a burning but not burning blackberry bush. The escape of Egypt from the Jews, aided by a series of God’s punishments, came upon the Egyptians. The Jews leave Egypt and cross the Red Sea because the Lord divides the waters of the sea. As they roam the Sinai Desert, the Jews are directed to walk on a huge pillar of fire. They manage to conquer Canaan after the miraculous collapse of Jericho’s impregnable walls. Then the era of heroes begins – like the mighty Samson, who with his bare hands tears down the temple of the Philistines in Dagon, as does King David, who kills the giant Goliath in bold combat. Then, somewhere around 1000 BC, came the golden age of King Solomon, the wisest of kings and the richest of men, who made Jerusalem the most prosperous city in the world. Finally comes the age of the prophets, whose life is full of miraculous events, such as the prophet Elijah ascending into heaven in a chariot of fire, and the prophet Ezekiel visiting God in a flying throne.
But despite these biblical statements today, we do not have credible testimony of any of these personalities, or of any of these miracles described outside the Bible. Even the Egyptian hieroglyphs, from whom many specimens are preserved, make no mention of the miracles that, according to the Bible, have accompanied the escape of the Jews from Egypt. And such unusual events would by no means go unnoticed by the chroniclers of Ancient Egypt – such as turning day into night or replacing the waters of the Nile with blood. Archaeologists have found nothing in Jerusalem since the time of Solomon’s reign, except for traces of an era with a relatively primitive culture. And as for the neighboring empires of Israel, if one is to judge from their historical writings, there is no mention of the existence of Jerusalem at all.
When Moses revealed God’s commandments to the Israelites, the Egyptian state had existed for more than two thousand years. The Giza pyramids have been around for almost as many years. Egypt was in the prime of its power. Pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty alternated on the throne, among them the famous Tutankhamun and the heretic Akhenaten. In Mesopotamia, the mighty Babylonian empire ruled over the present-day territories of Iran and Iraq, and the Hittite kingdom in modern-day Turkey ruled all of Asia Minor. Stonehenge monoliths were already erected in Britain; in India, Hinduism prevailed and Rig-Veda hymns were written.
When King Solomon headed the Jewish kingdom, the Egyptian state and the Hittite empire collapsed, the Minoans were subjugated by the Mycenaeans who came from Greece, and the ancient Phoenicians, who inhabited the lands of present-day Lebanon, conquered the entire Mediterranean. When the Babylonians invaded Judea, the Assyrian empire was already experiencing its rise and subsequent decline; in Ancient Rome the Tarquinians dynasty reigned, and in Hellenic city-states began the processes that would glorify Greece. The Persian Empire was established in the lands of present-day Iran. The Celts, which have not yet emerged from the Copper Age, are spread in most parts of northern Europe and the British Isles. At the same time, when the Old Testament was most likely written, in far-off China, Laotzi began a doctrine called Taoism. Zen Buddhism is spreading in Japan. The first shrine was built in Thessaly – the temple of the Delphic oracle. If the Bible is to be trusted, all this time, while these changes were taking place in the world, the monotheistic religion of the ancient Jews survived and developed.
Contemporary thinking is somewhat polarized about how this religion really evolved. On the one hand, there are fundamentalists who take every word of the Old Testament narratives for historical fact; and on the other, skeptics insist that the Israelites embraced monotheism at a much later stage in their history. According to the former, doubts about the truth of biblical claims were blasphemy, but according to the latter, everything in the Bible is too absurd to be accepted uncritically. Historians take the middle ground, generally tending to agree with the notion that monotheism may have arisen before the Babylonian invasion, but until then the legend of its appearance had not been clearly articulated. The reason is, that most of the biblical stories were inspired by the experiences of the ancient Jews during their slavery in Babylon. After the conquest of Judea, the Babylonians returned to Jerusalem, taking most of its inhabitants as slaves to Babylon. It was these enslaved Jews, during the so-called Babylonian captivity, who formed the biblical legends. It can be argued that the narrative of Moses and the escape of the Jews from Egypt are allegories. They may be based on the beliefs of religious leaders dedicated to the legend that God saved his people centuries ago from no less severe slavery, and that He would once again deliver them from the suffering of today. Similarly, the golden age of King Solomon can be seen as a dream come true for the glory of the past, which will one day return. King Solomon’s Jerusalem represents just one copy of the fabulously rich Babylon, which, during the Babylonian captivity of the ancient Jews, was the most glamorous city in the world. As for the exploits of ancient Israelite heroes and the lives of the prophets, they resemble the folklore traditions that exist in every ancient culture. Finally, let us give the floor to archeologists who, in principle, regard the ancient Jewish community as an enduring union of the most ordinary tribes of the Bronze Age, who struggled to secure their humble existence in a deserted land, squeezed between mighty empires in the Middle East and Asia Minor. they resemble the folklore legends that exist in every ancient culture. Finally, let us give the floor to archeologists who, in principle, regard the ancient Jewish community as an enduring union of the most ordinary tribes of the Bronze Age, who struggled to secure their humble existence in a deserted land, squeezed between mighty empires in the Middle East and Asia Minor. they resemble the folklore legends that exist in every ancient culture. Finally, let us give the floor to archeologists who, in principle, regard the ancient Jewish community as an enduring union of the most ordinary tribes of the Bronze Age, who struggled to secure their humble existence in a deserted land, squeezed between mighty empires in the Middle East and Asia Minor.
One thing is for certain: that during the invasion of Babylon in 597 BC. the Jews worshiped the one God known as Yahweh. The king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, mentions the destruction of the main center of the Jewish religious cult – the temple in Jerusalem. But except in the Old Testament, there are nowhere to be found sources describing how this religion originated. Historically, this is certainly one of the biggest mysteries.
At one time, I myself was inclined to agree with the commonly held statement that much of the Old Testament descriptions are nothing but myths. This continued to the point where I set out to verify the veracity of the biblical descriptions of the unprecedented woes that hit Egypt during the escape of the Jews. In the mid-nineties, I worked on my book, “The Work of God,” which deals with the mysteries of an Egyptian tomb dating back three thousand years. The period of Egyptian history, which I then explored, included the years that Jews were supposed to have escaped from Egyptian slavery. To my great surprise, it was at that time that Egypt was struck by a natural disaster, the description of which in ancient Egyptian chronicles is quite reminiscent of the ills,
According to the book of Exodus from the Old Testament, when Pharaoh refused Moses to lead enslaved Jews beyond the borders of Egypt, God sent a series of disasters to punish the Egyptians: darkness descended on the earth; The Nile turned into a 01rom pan filled with blood; great hailstorms and storms followed; the cattle are dead; the water began to boil; the country was invaded by invasions of frogs, lice, flies and locusts. To modern thinking, all this sounds like myths and legends. However, such events can indeed be the result of a natural disaster, such as a giant volcanic eruption.
First of all, let’s look at the disaster surrounding the widespread darkening and changing of the day with the night. Such a phenomenon could be the result of a huge cloud of volcanic ash floating above the ground. One of the most recent eruptions was in Mount St. Helens in Washington, USA, in 1980. After the eruption, the sun disappeared over an area 800 km around the crater of the volcano. And after the even greater eruption of Krakatau Island off Sumatra Island in 1883, the sky remained dark for much greater distances – in fact, the day really gave way to the night, and so it was thousands of miles away. According to Exodus 10: 21-23:
And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thy hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness in the land of Egypt, a darkness that can be touched. And Moses lifted up his hand to heaven, and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days; but in the dwellings of all the children of Israel he saw.
If only one in ten disasters coincided in description with the effects of volcanic eruptions, even this would be a rather intriguing coincidence. But in practice, there are coincidences in all ten disasters sent by God to the Egyptians. From Exodus 9: 23-26, we learn that Egypt has been hit by a great storm and hailing not seen before:
And Moses lifted up his rod to heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire; A hailstorm unprecedented, as strong as no one has remembered since people lived in the land of Egypt. In all the land of Egypt hail smote all that was in the fields, all the grass, men, cattle, and broke all the trees of the field.
It looks like a credible and accurate description of the great suffering that the population of Sumatra Island suffered after the eruption of the Krakatau volcano – debris from volcanic rocks measuring ball size poured out as deadly hail; the flooded hot lava pumice ignited countless fires on the earth; Inside the huge volcanic cloud, great lightning storms stormed because of the extremely strong turbulent vortices in the atmosphere. Even as the volcano erupted in Mount St. Helens, volcanic debris crumbled like hail, destroying all the plants hundreds of miles away.
The other disasters described in the Bible Exodus can easily be presented as testimonies to the inhabitants of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, because it was in the sky above these states that a huge cloud spread after the volcanic eruption in Mount St. Helens in 1980:
And ashes shall be sprinkled upon all the land of Egypt, and shall cause inflammation to the people and to the cattle with purulent boils … [Exodus 9: 9]
Fine ash causing boils and sores! Hundreds of residents of the states mentioned above were taken to hospitals with skin irritations and rashes after the St. Helens eruption as they were exposed to the falling volcanic pen with high acid content and due to prolonged inhalation of volcanic dust. Just as in Exodus 9: 6: “And all the cattle shall perish in Egypt.”
After the eruption of the volcano in Mount St. Helens, the fish died. Floating dead fish were found hundreds of miles downstream. The pungent odor of pumice stone was everywhere. All connections to the water sources were cut off so that no pollution could enter the reservoirs. Remember the Exodus 7:21:
And the fish in the river died; and the water stank so that the Egyptians could not drink the water of the river; and there was blood all over the land of Egypt.
For most volcanoes, such as Krakatau, not only gray ash from volcanic pumice is thrown into the sky, but another, even more toxic, ingredient, iron oxide. (This is the same reddish material that covers the surface of the planet Mars.) Thousands of tons of iron oxide scattered throughout Krakatau’s eruption, killing fish hundreds of miles away. Perhaps this is the explanation for the mysterious conversion of the Nile waters into blood in the book of Exodus because iron oxide causes the water to redden in the rivers or as it is said, “And all the water in the river will turn to blood” [Exodus 7 : 20].
Other disasters at first glance seem to have nothing to do with volcanic eruptions – frogs, lice, flies and grasshoppers. However, these invasions by frogs and insects – just like the rise of huge, extremely dense clouds into the atmosphere – can be caused by the sharp activation of volcanic activity. Those of us who have never suffered the deadly effects of an awakening of a volcano may imagine that once the eruption subsides, the dead will be buried, the injured will be assisted, and then the most urgent repairs will begin and survivors will be able to return to normal life if there is no longer any threat of new volcanic nightmares. However, quite often this is not the case because the whole ecosystem is affected.
Once the entire earth is covered with volcanic ash, the creeping invertebrates and insects found in the early stages of reproduction, such as larvae, cocoons or eggs, will be safe under the ash layer (like sleeping snakes and rodents). This also applies to the eggs of frogs protected among the pitfalls. Therefore, after such a cataclysm, they will have sufficient time to breed, outstripping their most dangerous rivals – the predators that feed on them and thus maintain biological balance. In addition, they reproduce in huge quantities – unlike larger animals. For this reason, one of the most commonly observed effects of severe volcanic eruptions is the appearance of swarms of such insects. After surviving the disaster, they set out to seek new refuge and food,
A very convincing example is one of the deadliest effects of the eruption of the Pelé volcano on Martinique, in the Western Indies, in 1902. Volcanic ash and small rocks hit the nearby port of St. Pierre, killing some thirty thousand people, but the nightmare did not limit the nightmare alone. with this. The survivors had to endure another horror – when huge waves of insects rose from the sugar plantations and hit the workers. People fled, frightened for their lives, but frantic insects continued to pierce their bodies with their deadly venomous veins. It was no accident that the insect erupted just after the volcanic eruption – the same thing happened when the volcanic erupted earlier in 1851, but then the insects attacked not only field workers, not only devastated entire plantations, but also penetrated the homes of people killing defenseless babies while sleeping in cots. Recall that according to the Bible Exodus, three types of insects attacked Egypt – lice, flies and grasshoppers.
Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff, and struck the earth, and the lice came upon men and animals; all the earth’s dust became lice in all the land of Egypt. [Exodus 8:17]
For if you do not let my men go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon you, upon your servants, and upon your people, and into your houses; so that the houses of the Egyptians, and the land on which they live, shall be filled with swarms of flies … And God did so: tormenting swarms of flies entered the house of Pharaoh … and the earth was blackened by swarms of flies. [Exodus 8: 21-24]
And the locusts swept over all the land of Egypt, and came to all the borders thereof; they were too terrible; there have never been such grasshoppers before, nor will there be after them. For they covered the face of all the land of Egypt, so that the earth was blackened; and they ate all the grass and all the fruit of the trees that had survived the hail; and all the land of Egypt remained nothing green, be it wood or grass in the field. [Exodus 10: 14-15]
Of all invertebrates, frogs are probably best suited to survive such a cataclysm, because just like insects, they create a huge number of fetuses. Each frog lays thousands of eggs. Under normal conditions, this is a biological necessity, since the tiny scabbards are born completely defenseless – so the only chance for the survival of the genus is in the huge number of scabbards. When hatching from eggs, they immediately become a treat for the fish in the pond, so that, in the end, thousands of pops of life survive only one or two. However, after the eruption of the St. Helens volcano erupted, predatory fish died while much smaller frog eggs survived. When the time comes for the scoops, the harmful chemicals, precipitated in the waters after the deposition of the solids in the volcanic cloud were carried away by the flow of each of the rivers but still lacked predatory fish. As a result, the entire state of Washington was flooded with an unprecedented frog invasion. The frogs spread in the thousands, at one time becoming so many that they even started to cause problems for traffic on the roads. They were also congesting irrigation canals, crashing into gardens, penetrating countless amounts, even into the homes of locals. According to Exodus 8: 2-8, the same affliction struck the ancient Egyptians: that they even started to cause traffic problems. They were also congesting irrigation canals, crashing into gardens, penetrating countless amounts, even into the homes of locals. According to Exodus 8: 2-8, the same affliction struck the ancient Egyptians: that they even started to cause traffic problems. They were also congesting irrigation canals, crashing into gardens, penetrating countless amounts, even into the homes of locals. According to Exodus 8: 2-8, the same affliction struck the ancient Egyptians:
But if you refuse to release them, behold, I will strike all your borders with frogs. The river will boil with frogs that, when they come out, will jump into your house, into your bed, into your bed, onto your people, into your furnaces, and into your nights … And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the whole land of Egypt.
For many years, various scientists have tried to find the link between these disasters and the various natural phenomena. Unprecedented darkness can descend above the earth in an extremely intense sandstorm; hail is usually the result of sudden atmospheric changes. Skin inflammations and boils can be caused by infectious diseases that have developed into large-scale epidemics. The waters of the Nile River may turn red due to some seismic activity in the far southern regions, where the springs of the great African river are located. Invasions by grasshoppers, flies and other insects are not uncommon. However, the likelihood of them all happening at one time is too small. But it must be remembered that all of them can be the result of some powerful volcanic eruption.
The only real problem in explaining the biblical disasters that plagued Egypt, as a consequence of a superpowered volcano operating in antiquity, is that these events did not actually happen in the order described in the book of Exodus. At first the sky darkened, then a severe storm followed, followed by an epidemic of skin inflammations and boils, the reddening of the waters of the rivers, and later the invasions of frogs and insects began. However, in the book of Exodus, the waters of the rivers first turn red, then the extinction of fish, the invasion of frogs, lice, flies, the extinction of livestock, skin inflammations and boils, hail, grasshoppers, and only finally the darkness. But in all likelihood, the book of Exodus was written several centuries after the tragic events described in Egypt.
Although at first glance, the combination of such catastrophic disasters may seem strange to us, if we assume that all of them were the result of an extraordinarily powerful volcanic eruption, this biblical legend would not seem so incredible to us. But one big question nonetheless remains: Has there really been such a powerful volcanic eruption, precisely during the period to which the events described in Exodus refer? It is not known that active volcanoes were active in Egypt during the last geological epochs, but it is known that somewhere during the period under consideration there was a sufficiently powerful volcanic eruption on the island of Thira in the Aegean Sea, whose effects may have affected Ancient Egypt.
Tira is the southernmost of the group. Samaria to the Cyclades Islands in Greece. In the 15th century BC. Thira is an important commercial port in the Minoan civilization, centered on the nearby island of Crete. Today, Thira is a small crescent-shaped island that forms a bay about ten kilometers wide. The island’s current name is Santorini. The coastal rocks are composed of layers of volcanic debris and frozen lava, which testifies to a turbulent geological past. The bay is actually a giant crater formed by a powerful eruption in ancient times and is so deep that the anchors of the ships cannot reach the bottom. In the 1930s, Greek archaeologist Spiridon Marinatos first suggested that there was a giant volcanic eruption at the end of the Minoan epoch that nearly destroyed the island. In 1956 geologists Dragoslav Ninkovic and Bruce Heesen, of Columbia University in the United States, conducted a more in-depth survey of the seabed to determine how strong this eruption was. They were able to determine with great precision the size of the volcanic crater – 51 square kilometers – aboard their exploration vessel Vema, and they came to the conclusion that an incredibly powerful eruption had ever happened on this Aegean island.
There are different types of volcanic eruptions: some of them have molten lava on the outer slopes of the crater, mud flows in others, but the most devastating are those where magma pressure is so high that the rocks in the crater crater they literally burst up into the sky. Judging by the remnants of the crater on the volcano near Thira Island, this is exactly what happened three thousand five hundred years ago. In fact, that eruption was broadly like the eruption of a volcano in Mount St. Helens, whose power is equal to the force of a 50-megon bomb.
In the morning of May 18, 1980, tons of volcanic material were lifted into the atmosphere just a moment ago, killing everything alive in the surrounding area with a total area of 251 square kilometers. Thousands of acres of forests have been uprooted, melted debris from volcanic rocks shattering everything around, and the landscape looks like a lunar one. The former lively tourist center, 60 km from the volcano, is completely flooded with pumice stone. In a few hours, the volcanic cloud rises to an altitude of 8 km, dragging millions of tonnes of volcanic material with it, after being swept away by winds 800 km in an easterly direction. In three states – Washington, Idaho and Montana – huge volcanic clouds cover the sun and the day turns into night. Everywhere in the affected sections, ash is poured like rain, damages car engines, stops trains, blocks roads. Seven million hectares of fertile land resemble a shady desert. Millions of dollars of crops have been trampled and completely destroyed.
One of the most devastating volcanic eruptions in recent decades has occurred in St Helens Mountain, but it is by no means comparable to the eruption of the Thira volcano. When Ninkovic and Heesen publish their findings on the Thira Island explosion, they use the information of the Krakatau eruption to compare. In August 1883, the Krakatau volcano erupted a huge force exceeding 20 times the eruption of the volcano in Mount St. Helens. The explosion was reported at 4,800 km – just in Melbourne in southern Australia. A giant volcanic cloud rose in the air, up to an altitude of 80 km, with the volcanic ash falling from it, covering an area of thousands of square kilometers. More than 36,000 people have died. According to estimates based on the size of the crater formed, The Krakatau volcano emitted about 9 cubic km of volcanic ash, rock fragments and other particulate matter into the atmosphere. But it should be remembered that the crater of Thira is about six times larger. Therefore, the explosion from the Greek island of Thira was probably felt in half the world; volcanic materials were lifted hundreds of kilometers up into the atmosphere, and volcanic ash covered more than one million square kilometers.
The last time people used nuclear weapons was in 1945, when the Japanese city of Nagasaki was devastated by an atomic bomb. This explosion has a capacity of 20 kilotons (equivalent to twenty thousand tons of conventional explosives). The volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens is far more powerful (50,000 kilotons), the volcano on Krakatau Island has reached an incredible capacity of one million kilotons, but the tragedy of Fr. The dash eclipses all other cases with its terrifying power of six million kilotons. This enormous explosive power is equivalent to six thousand modern nuclear warheads – each of which can wipe out an entire city from Earth. According to this estimate of the power of the eruption, and according to indicative estimates of the scale of the tragedy, judging by the size of the crater, it can be assumed that about 114 cubic meters. km of rock fragments have been thrown into the sky. It was from them that the huge cloud formed, which was carried away by the winds to the south, towards Egypt.
Samples of pumice stone taken from the seafloor during the Vema study prove that under the influence of strong winds, the volcanic cloud is headed for Egypt. The Egyptian coast is located just 800 km from the island of Thira. Judging by the effects of the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens in the United States and the island of Krakatau in Indonesia, at a similar distance from the crater of an awakened volcano, it can be argued with great certainty that Egypt has suffered terribly from its volcanic clouds. Over time, the ancient Israelites, later called Jews, could interpret these terrible natural disasters as God’s punishments.
But why was such a large-scale event not recorded in the surviving ancient Egyptian chronicles?  I will return to this riddle later. The most important thing that deserves our attention so far is the fact that the biblical punishments no longer seem to us as mythologized as they used to be, which in turn raises a new question: how many more episodes in the Old Testament are based on real historical events?
This is where my research begins. Once the history of the disasters that plagued the Egyptians at the time of the escape of the Jews from Egyptian slavery no longer seems to us the fruit of fantastic fabrications, perhaps the biblical history of the emergence of the Jewish religion is worthy of serious study. For this reason, I decided to check not only the Bible but also historical records and archaeological discoveries to try to find some evidence of the emergence of the monotheistic religion of ancient Jews. Since the concept of the one and only God so widespread in the world, and since its emergence is still a mystery to historians, I think it remains one of the greatest mysteries in human history. So, the most important question is: what is the true origin of God?
- The words of Moses are the basis of faith for more than half of the earth’s population. The roots of the great monotheistic religions in the modern world lie in the sacred laws that he revealed to the Israelites three and a half millennia ago. The God of Moses became the only God not only of Judaism, but also of Christianity and Islam. No matter how each of these great religions and their many diverse sects interpret the Bible, they all share the belief that there is only one God, and acceptance of this fact is among the fundamental principles of their faith. According to the Bible, these commandments of God were revealed by God to Moses at the top of Mount Sinai – the Mount of God – more than three thousand years ago. His followers, the Jews,
- The only information we have today about the lives of Jews until the sixth century BC is contained in ancient Jewish legends, called the Tanak Jews, or what Christians called the Bible’s Old Testament. Although these writings cover the history of the Jews for more than a millennium, they do not appear to have been written before 550 BC. The events of the Old Testament, related to the advent of the Jewish religion, seem unbelievable to modern thinking. According to biblical chronology, the Jewish religion originated around 1300 BC. The beginning of the new teaching was laid by Moses’ conversation with God in the burning bush. The next major event was the escape of the Jews from slavery in Egypt, called Exodus, after they had been aided by a series of amazing punishments, imposed by the God of the Egyptians. After the escape of God dividing the waters of the Red Sea, a huge pillar of fire guided the Israelites during a long wander through the wilderness.
- According to contemporary historical thinking, these legends inspired the Jews to more easily endure Babylonian slavery. After the kingdom of Judea was invaded in the early sixth century BC, the Babylonians returned to their capital, enslaveing most of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. It was they who created the biblical legends during the so-called Babylonian captivity. According to historians, the legend of Moses and the Exodus of Egypt is an allegory, perhaps based on the visions of a religious leader who recalled how the Lord had once saved the Jews, and therefore might again intervene to get them out of Babylon’s captivity. But there are still signs that one of the most amazing, at first glance, miracles in the Old Testament may have actually been possible: disasters,
- According to the legend of the escape of Egypt from Egypt, described in the book of Exodus, when Pharaoh did not allow the Jews to leave Egypt, God punished the Egyptians with a series of unusual events called Bible disasters, including darkening over all Egyptian land, horrible hailstorms, turning the water in the Nile River into blood. Such miracles can be the result of some natural disaster. At that time, there was a giant volcanic eruption on Thira Island. The very same day, a huge cloud of volcanic ash hung over Egypt, the sky darkened and small volcanic stones and ashes were pouring like hail on the earth. In addition to the gray ash from volcanic pumice ejected from the crater of the volcano toward the sky, this eruption has released iron oxide from the earth’s interior,
- The only thing that is certain about this period is the fact that during the Babylonian invasion in 597 BC. the Jews had one God whom they called Yahweh (Jehovah). The king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, really described the destruction of the main center of the Jewish religious cult, the Temple of Jerusalem. From a historical point of view, there is no doubt that one of the strangest mysteries in the world is the question of how this religion originated. Just as the history of the escape of the Jews from Egypt no longer seems fantastic to us, so perhaps the biblical legend of the advent of the Jewish religion needs serious study.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Graham Phillips has been one of the UK’s best-selling non-fiction authors for over 20 years. In the 1980s, he quit his career as a BBC journalist and editor of a popular monthly magazine and channeled his talent into investigating unsolved historical puzzles. Since then, he has written more than 12 books that have been translated and published worldwide in more than 10 languages.
Graham Phillips wrote her first books in collaboration with Martin Keitman, and from the very beginning, the authors have mastered a unique research method. In the 1990s, Graham and Martin delved into the truth behind the old legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood. In 1992, King Arthur – The True Story became a bestseller when the two writers discovered indisputable evidence of Arthur’s historical existence. Graham Phillips has never been afraid to take on challenges. Nor did he run away from controversial issues. Recently, the author has turned his attention to biblical mysteries. For example, his book, The Moses Heritage, reviews the work of recognized archaeologists and Bible scholars and presents remarkable evidence to support the Old Testament being much closer to the truth, than many historians think. Critics often wonder how Graham was able to solve so many historical puzzles. The answer is: By applying an interdisciplinary approach and courage to address topics that scientists do not want or even fear to explore.